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> The plu-perfect is formed with the auxiliary HAD, followed by the past participle of the main verb:

He had always wanted to travel in Africa.
She had already left when Philippe arrived.
I bought the book that Corinne had recommended to me.


> The plu-perfect shows that the action has been done before another action (in the past). Adverbs such as "already" reinforce this impression.

She learned to love the dog that had bitten her the week before.
When I got home, I had already heard the bad news.
The children ate all the cookies that their father had bought.


> The plu-perfect is often used in hypothetical expressions with "if", in conjunction with the past conditional:

I would not have come if I had known he was ill.


> With the adverb "just", the plu-perfect indicates the immediate past in a past context:

He had just eaten lunch when I arrived.

TEST - Fill in the gaps with the verbs (plu-perfect):

1. I went to Paris two days ago. I ___________________ (already / to be) to Europe several years before.

2. I ate the apple I _________________ (to buy) in the supermarket.

3. _________________ you _________________ (to do) your homework when your friend arrived?

> Answer 1: Yes, I _________________.

> Answer 2: No, I _________________.


ANSWERS 1. I had already been to Paris. 2. I had bought. 3. Had you done your homework... Yes, I had. No, I hadn't.