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Too - Also - As well - Either - Not either
Also ? Too ? Too many ?/Too much ?/ As well ? // Either ? Not ... either.
Oh Dear ! These 'little words' you never know what to do with ... where to put them in the sentence, why there are so many different ones, and if 'they all mean the same' ... Arghhhhhhh !
1) TOO /ALSO /AS WELL.
* A) = TOO must be placed immediately after the word it modifies. ALSO must be placed before the verb. AS WELL, which is more familiar and very commonly used when speaking, is placed after the word it's applied to ! => TOO/ ALSO/ AS WELL = AFFIRMATIVE FORM
ex 1 : Though he's a vegetarian, Michael eats eggs and drinks milk too. OR : Michael eats eggs and also drinks milk ! OR : Michael eats eggs and drinks milk as well.
ex 2 : Paul is an artist : He paints, and he carves wood too. OR : Paul paints and he carves wood as well. OR : Paul paints and he also carves wood !
* BEWARE : where to put : 'too', 'also', 'as well' and the (optional) comma, before 'too'.
ex : I, too, can carve wood !
ex 1bis: Michael consumes eggs and also milk. OR : He consumes eggs as well as milk ! OR : He consumes eggs and also milk ! (same examples as in 1, but without different verbs.)
ex : My brother, too, is a vegan : He doesn't consume animal products at all !
*B) TOO = When dealing with quantity.
ex : My brother is too young to decide for himself ; Mom gives him meat to eat !
** It can also modify adjectives before infinitive clauses introduced by 'for' :
ex: This house is too big for me to live alone there ...
* C) TOO = What more ?, Even : ex : Joan eats meat and she eats it raw, too !
BEWARE : TOO is followed by an indefinite article when placed before an adjective and followed by a noun : TOO + Adj. => TOO + Adj + a/an + nom . These sentences are 'grammatically excellent'. Yet, they're quite heavy, and 'hard to use when speaking' (but they must be known by every student of English taking exams in Europe since they're in many quizzes !). For speaking purposes, they're often replaced by less formal equivalent sentences :
ex : 'It's too big a house for me alone ! will become : 'It's such a big house for me alone !
*** If TOO expresses a quantity, it must be followed by MUCH before an uncountable, and by MANY in front of a countable in the plural.
ex : Vegan or not, I have too many vegetables to eat, and too much milk to drink.
TOO : Once too often = you should have stopped before ! One too many = you shouldn't have added this one !
ALSO never means the same as in German (consequently).
2) EITHER / NOT ... EITHER : 'Either' is also a word you must be careful about ...
* EITHER : the one or the other.
ex : Fish or meat ? It doesn't matter ! I can have either !
ex : To come home, you can take either bus (45 or 67) !
* Added to 'not' : NOT ... EITHER = 'negative meaning' :=> (not) ... EITHER = NEGATIVE FORM
ex : I eat eggs and drink milk too, but I don't eat fish or meat either
ex : He hates fish and he doesn't like meat either !
EITHER + singular = BOTH + plural = The 2 of them : either side of the road = both sides of the road ! Either is plural when it's followed by OF + preceding a countable noun in the plural, a pronoun, a possessive determiner, 'the', 'these', 'those' : either of my parents , either of them.
Well ! Now, you're ready for your test. If the lesson has been well studied, you should have every item right ! Good luck !
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