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To sit or to sit down/ To stand or to stand up
The verbs describing a position of the body are built with the -ing form.
- to lie, I lay, lain => lying in bed.
- to sit, sat, sat => sitting on a chair or in an armchair.
- to stand, stood, stood => standing
- to kneel, I knelt, knelt => kneeling
- to crouch - crouching, to squat - squatting ; to line; These verbs must be handled with great care!
They are accompanied, or not ..., by particles (adverbs) which totally change their meaning.
She's standing. They're lining up. He's sitting. He's standing.
1) Used without their particles : these verbs express a 'fixed' position (when the people are motionless). They 're formed with the verb + ing.
ex: Look, he's lying in bed and his dog is sitting and watching him.
Peter's sitting on the floor. (=> He sits)
John's standing in the middle of a crowd. (=> He stands)
2) Used with the particle 'up', they indicate a rising movement; the particle 'down' indicates a descending movement.
ex: He's sitting up. (He was lying in bed and got to the 'sitting' position.)
On the opposite, 'He's sitting down' = He's making the movement of sitting. ( He was standing => He's now sitting.)
ex: 'Stand up'
ex: 'Sit down!'
ex: 'Kneel down!
ex: To be upside down (what should be 'up' is 'down' and vice versa!)
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