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Dream and Back to reality 2/2
Remember, the tense of narration is the simple past .
ex: Alison came to this Pacific Island because it was the dream of her life.
* The - ing forms:
- express an action happening, in the present ( present in -ing), or in the past ( preterite ou past perfect in -ing) at the moment of the narration.
ex: Agustin was bringing food and drinks to the rich tourists who were having a holiday in the sun.
- They are compulsory after prepositions and particles (adverbs) following some verbs :
ex: Agustin didn't want to go on being a servant all his life!
* IMPORTANT ! If an action happened before a simple past, it must be in the past perfect simple (or in the past perfect in -ing if we want to insist on the duration of the action) =>
had + verb in the past participle or had + been + verb + ing
ex: Before their departure from the USA, Alison's friend Liz, had been taken to hospital.
* If you need to use a modal auxiliary can => could indicate a physical or intellectual ability, a capacity, and a permission in informal language.
and may(=> might) express either a permission or a possibility.
must(=> have to) indicate either an obligation, a duty, or near certainty.
should expresses advice given or 'what would be good to exist' ...
ex: Alison shouldn't order expensive drinks or food... She can't afford them!
* You'll need some precise vocabulary concerning several fields:
A) The vocabulary of waves and sea water.
- a wave = a swelling on the surface of the sea, a ripple= a small wave, slack sea = the flat surface of the sea 'at rest', a breaker = a huge wave which explodes ; a roller = a wave forming a roll
- spray = tiny droplets of sea-water , foam = a frothy form of water.
- to surge, to swell= to become bigger and bigger ...
- damp= humid; wet= covered with liquid; soaked, drenched= very wet; drowned= (like) dead in water.
B) Verbs expressing willpower:
|to have wishes||to desire|
|and desires :||to wish|
|opposed to 'to be reluctant'||to be willing to|
|to want very very much||to crave|
|to be impatient to||to be eager to|
|to want something very strongly||to long for|
|to wait impatiently||to look forward to|
|to want very strongly||to yearn for|
C) Verbs expressing screams and shouts:
|to cry loudly, openly||to cry out|
|to cry very loudly||to scream|
|to scream very loud and high||to shout|
|to cry (an acute sound)||to shriek|
|to cry (a piercing sound)||to shrill|
|to howl||to yell|
|to yell (US)||to holler (US)|
D) Vocabulaire : Throwing...
|to throw (net)||to cast, (I cast, cast)|
|to cast||to throw, (I threw, thrown)|
|to throw violently||to fling, (I flung, flung)|
|to fling violently||to hurl|
Well well! You must be ready to do the test, now ... Use the elements you have learnt in the lesson ! (Do not hesitate to have a pause, and save your work, of course!) Good luck!
This text was freely inspired by The Beach-butler, by Ruth Rendell.
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