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Learn English > English lessons and exercises > English test #109513: Expressing time: by... , by the time..., once...
Expressing time: by... , by the time..., once...
1) BY : may express a deadline, whether it is a ‘date or a time limit'.
ex: Yes! You may go out, provided you're back by 10.00pm
ex: Tell me by tomorrow.
ex: Your project must be finished by next Saturday!
2) BY THE TIME + clause = ‘before the limit', ‘when...', ‘before' ... ; an action happened before another one, the latest possible moment is the moment when this other action is happening.
ex: By the time he got to the top, he was exhausted !
ex: By the time he arrived , his brother had already left.
3) ONCE is a conjunction meaning ‘as soon as' or ‘after', or if ever.
ex: Once I've picked Megan up, I'll call you.
ex: You'll pay for it once you've received it.
Shall and will cannot be used in a subordinate clause introduced by once.
ex : Once I pass all my exams, I'll be fully qualified.
The main Subordinate conjunctions are: after, (al)though, as, before, if, if ever, since, that, until, when, whereas, while, once, so, as soon as, provided that.
They can NEVER be followed by a future or a conditional.
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