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Passive Form : step 3
Before starting this third step of our study of the Passive Form, you should first remember 'the miracle formula'.
The Passive is built with the SUBJECT (enduring the action) + the AUXILIARY of the passive (BE) in different tenses and/or modes + the PAST PARTICIPLE of the verb.
The student was punishedi (by the teacher.) = The student was punished (by the teacher)
= subject V in the ACTOR (he acted) = Subject + BE + past participle . ACTOR(agent)
enduring passive introduced by: BY
In the passive form, the active Predicate (complement) is becoming the passive SUBJECT. The person who's doing the action endured by the subject is the ACTOR(or agent), introduced by BY. . The 'actor' is seldom mentioned in English (except if its omission makes the sentence difficult to understand.)
ex: Nobody obeyed the teacher. => The teacher wasn't obeyed.
- Let 's remember that in the Passive, in Phrasal Verbs, particles or prepositions mustn't be left out of the verbs requiring them!
Now, we are going to study a specific case that foreign learners have trouble to build and use in a natural way. If they don't, it automatically identifies them as foreigners.
THE PASSIVE FORM OF VERBS WITH TWO COMPLEMENTS :
Such verbs are, for instance : give, say, tell, lend, show, teach, grant, promise, write...
Using them, you have to forget the basic rule of the passive Form and the object Complement momentarily. Paradoxical, isn't it?
ex: Kevin's parents will give him a wonderful present for his graduation.
- Kevin's parents = The Subject of the Verb 'to give'.
- 'Will give' = Active verb in the future; its passive form => 'will be given'.
- 'Him' is the personal complement ( or Indirect Complement ) representing Kevin.
IN THIS CASE, when there's an Object Complement and a Personal Complement for the same verb, the priority is given to the person and the agent (or actor), is superfluous and omitted.
The idiomatic Passive Form will be:
- Kevin will be given a wonderful present for his graduation.
- They expected Pietro to receive a warmer welcome. => Pietro was expected to receive a warmer welcome.
- Somebody showed you the way to the station.=> You were shown the way to the station.
- They'll sell you a swim hat if you don' have one of your own. => You'll be sold a swim hat if you don't have one of your own.
- Has somebody told you the truth, at last? => Have you been told the truth, at last?
* If the Object Complement is really the important element of the sentence, it may EXCEPTIONALLY, be the subject of the Passive sentence.
- Of all the paintings in The Louvre, the famous Mona Lisa will be explained to the many tourists.
Well, well! This third part was the most 'difficult' one, and it will require more care and attention... Study it carefully, and then, you'll have done with this construction which seems to frighten you so much... Ready for the test? Go for it!
I know that learners don't like it when they have to write the exercises fully. They much prefer to have to pick and choose already typed answers. Here, you'll simply have to choose the right answer among the full sentences given. Aren't you spoilt ?
Then, when you have successfully done the 3 exercises of the 3 steps, you should come back to the original test where you'll have to write the right passive yourselves... You have the motivation, I give you the FORCE! Good luck! Victory is drawing near!
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