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Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by the increase of the plasmatic concentration of glucose (glycemia). This hyperglycemia can very often be detected by the presence of glucose in urine . This glycosuria is secondary to the increased glomerular filtration of glucose in the kidneys. The concentration of glucose in the glomerular filtrate overcomes the ability of proximal tubular cells to fully reabsorb the glucose present in the filtrate.
Diabetes is often secondary to the lack (absolute or relative) of a peptidic hormone, insulin. Insulin binds to a specific receptor located on the plasma membrane of various cells and increases the uptake of extracellular glucose by two mechanisms: the activation of a glucose transporter, GLUT4 (push effect) and the increase of the intracellular metabolism of glucose (pull effect).
Millions of diabetic patients all over the world are treated by daily injection(s) of insulin. The pharmaceutical industry is searching for alternative routes to deliver insulin to the patients. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved in 2014 Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder. Afrezza is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin that is administered at the beginning of each meal.
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