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Do/does/did: affirmative, interrogative and negative forms
Let's come back to fundamentals, those which, if they're not properly mastered, stop and unsettle true (and false) beginners willing to improve their English and understand how this simple phenomenon works.
There are auxiliaries such as "BE" and "HAVE", and those that young (and older) beginners know (can/ can't/ must/ mustn't) and then comes the tricky need to turn these "ordinary" verbs ( arrive, come, play, work, walk, run, etc.) into interrogative and negative forms - You must have noticed that they are both regular AND irregular verbs).
Yet, it's quite easy to do that, and we're going to do it together.
1. 1. The affirmative form of "ordinary" verbs: "ordinary" verbs follow the pattern: subject + verb + complements.
· - The kids watch cartoons every day after school.
- Jesse usually plays tennis on Saturday afternoons.
2. Let's turn an "ordinary" verb into the interrogative form: then, we must use what is called an "auxiliary" which helps us build our structure: it will be the auxiliary DO. In the third person singular, it becomes DOES; both will follow the pattern:
AUXILIARY + subject + base verb + ?
- Do the kids really watch cartoons every day after school?
· - Does Jenny usually play tennis on Saturday afternoons?
3. Let's turn an ordinary verb into the negative form: we'll use the DO/DOES auxiliary again and it will be followed by NOT according to the following pattern: Subject + DO/DOES + not + base verb + complements...
- The kids don't really watch cartoons every day after school. That's too much TV!
- Jenny doesn't play tennis on Saturday afternoons but she plays on Wednesday afternoons.
4. Learn to make a difference between DO/DOES (the auxiliary) and the "ordinary" verb DO/DOES ("I do my work after school"). This very ordinary verb follows the pattern which was described above.
· - Tom does his homework after school.
· - Does Tom do his homework at school or after school?
· - Tom doesn't do his homework after school.
5. When DO becomes DID: in the preterite, (in the past simple ) the auxiliary of "ordinary" verbs, the auxiliary becomes DID all along and follows the same patterns as DO/DOES in the interrogative and negative forms.
- Yesterday, Jenny played tennis all morning!
- Did Jenny play tennis in the morning ? Yes, she did.
- Jenny didn't play tennis in the afternoon, yesterday.
That's very "easy" when you get used to it, but it is so useful and fundamental... The same process will be adapted to all the other auxiliaries you'll meet as you progress in your knowledge of English. Good luck!
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