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Vocabulary + passive: the little tree 2/2
An easy AND fundamental lesson... but especially a difficult exercise (almost a 3 star one!) because it's particularly long and you MUST do it calmly, making as many pauses - and saving them - as you progress. The ideal situation would be for you to take as much time to think and do it ... as it took me to make it!
It's inspired by a tale by Hans Christian Andersen; it may be less famous than some others...1) The Passive form, the bases:
In the passive form, the action is endured whereas in the active form, the subject is the actor and does the action.
The wood-cutters have cut the trees.
Subject Verb Predicate
The passive form is built with the SUBJECT (enduring the action)+ the AUXILIARY of the passive (BE) in various tenses and modes + the PAST PARTICIPLE of the verb.
The little tree has been cut (by the wood-cutters)
:the Subject + BE+ past participle Agent
the action. introduced by BY
In the passive form, the direct object complement (Predicate) becomes the SUBJECT of the passive form and the person doing the action endured by the subject is the AGENT, introduced by BY. This agent is seldom mentioned in the British sentence (except if it's necessary to the understanding of the sentence.)
- Nobody cut the little tree.=> The little tree wasn't cut.
The passive is used very frequently in English: it's used in all the tenses and modes; the use of the tenses in the passive is the same as in the active form (the time-markers will help!)
The wood-cutters evaluate the trees.=> The trees are evaluated... ( regularly, because the trees must be cut when ready)
The wood-cutters are cutting the trees.=> The trees are being cut... ( just now because they are big enough.)
The wood-cutters cut the trees yesterday.=> The trees were cut... yesterday.
The wood-cutters will cut the trees tomorrow...=> The trees will be cut... if they're big enough.
The different tenses are possible! Be conscious that if you happen to think in French, or in any other language and want to translate from your mother language mentally, (which you must NEVER DO), the different tenses NEVER CHANGE between the active and the passive forms.
IMPORTANT REMINDER! In English, the passive form, (as well as many other constructions), NEEDS the past participle , which means ... a perfect knowledge of the irregular verbs! We can never repeat it enough!
Light and darkness, flames and fire...
| To light (up) (I lit, lit) ||= supply with lights|| To lighten || = become less dark |
| To illuminate|| = decorate with lights ||bright|| = brilliant |
| To twinkle |
= to shine with
a flickering light
|dark|| = little or no light |
| To shine (I shone, shone) || = bright with light||brightness||/ darkness|
|To dazzle||= to blind with light||dazzling||= blinding|
| To be radiant|| = shining|| pitch dark/ black || = extremely dark |
|To sparkle||= to gleam with light||a spark||= a fiery particle|
|To blaze||= to be on fire||a blaze/ a fire|| = a violent fire|
|To drown||= put under the water||scorching hot||= burning hot|
Go for it!
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