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    Learn English > English lessons and exercises > English test #116332: Contrast, opposition, restriction
    > Other English exercises on the same topics: Adverbs | Conjunctions | Prepositions [Change theme]
    > Similar tests: - Adjective and preposition - Adjectives and adverbs - Adverbs of frequency - FOR and its use - Across / through - Adjectives and prepositions - Adverbs : Till-Until- As far as-Up to - Adverbs
    > Double-click on words you don't understand


    Contrast, opposition, restriction


    CONTRAST, OPPOSITION and RESTRICTION...

     

     

     In order to express these three concepts introducing nuances in sentences, some «tool-words» of different natures are used.

               I) CONJUNCTIONS: link two clauses and are thus followed by : subject + verb. 

                        ALTHOUGHEVEN THOUGH=  express concession

                        - WHEREAS/ WHILE=  express contrast.           

           - His salary isn't very high although he works long and difficult hours. 
         - Her sister came by train whereas her brother drove from home.

     

                                                                                          

                                      

           II) ADVERBS: also introduce a restriction in a new clause: they're often followed by a comma. 

                       * YET,

                      *  HOWEVERSTILL, NEVERTHELESS,/ NONETHELESS,

           * NOTWITHSTANDING,                                                                                  

         - He said he had understood, however, he repeated the same mistake several times. 

     

                                                                                                                                       

                 

         III) PREPOSITIONS:   often introduce a noun group (determiner + noun)                                                                   

                  UNLIKECONTRARY TO,  IN SPITE OF + noun / DESPITE + noun. 

        - Sandra is a doctor, unlike her twin sister who's an executive. 

     

                                                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                                                                                                        

                  IV) ADVERBS or RELATIVE PRONOUNSWHATEVER , HOWEVER both introduce clauses too. 

           - Whatever you say, he's so stubborn that he won't obey you.

       - However repeatedly you'll ask, she won't give you what you want. 



                                                                                        

     

     In these two examples, HOWEVER and WHATEVER may be remplaced by NO MATTER ...

    - No matter how repeatedly you'll ask, she won't give you what you want. (more formal)

     

     

                                                                                  

     

    Well well ! Now, you must be ready for the test! Good luck!  

     



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    1. 'Lucy, I'm quite angry with you... that you were tidying up your room, it's still in a mess...'


    2. « You perfectly know that you do that in a hurry, we won't make that chocolate cake you wanted to eat with your friends. »


    3. « Please, do it I'll get the ingredients ready, and pre-heat the oven. »<


    4. 'Oh Mom, being eager to put things in order, I can't do it... These boxes are much too heavy for me to carry.'


    5. ' Stop it, little girl! Put your toys in their boxes; heavy they are, I'll carry them for you''


    6. ' Thanks Mom! I'll hurry, , you may have to start making the cake alone...'


    7. 'Mom, do you know that Chloe will come here alone Kristin will be driven here by her big brother.'


    8. ' Mom, you're so kind! I promise, you ask from us, we'll do it!'


    9. 'Lucy, your promise, your room isn’t tidied up yet and I’m getting more and more irritated.'


    10. 'Well! That’s how it is! hard I try, you never seem to be satisfied by my efforts...'


    11. 'Maddie had said she would help me decorate the room. , she hasn't arrived yet.'


    12. 'Don't worry! She'll soon be coming. , if she isn't here to help you at 3, I'll do it.' 'Oh, thank you! You're great, Mom!'


     

                                                           








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