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    Learn English > English lessons and exercises > English test #118409: If clauses: step 2
    > Other English exercises on the same topic: Conditional and hypothesis [Change theme]
    > Similar tests: - Conditional - I wish, if only - Conditional clauses - Hypothetical sentences: tenses - Third conditional - Conditional Sentences - If or whether - If clauses-Beginners
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    If clauses: step 2

     IF CLAUSES. POSSIBILITY and the UNREAL (of the present and of the past):



    BE CAREFUL!    This test  is the logical sequence and complement of that lesson test. You MUST study the first one before trying this one. 

    This second lesson will show you how to express suppositions and regrets without making mistakes in the different tenses to use in varied circumstances; these tenses tend to be misused in daily conversation and even in the media... (Please, do not imitate!)    

    1) Realisable
     suppositions : you are imagining actions that may happen, logically, if a specified requirement is met.  

    - If Paul runs to the station, he'll catch the 10 o'clock train. 

    If + simple present              =>                   Subject + future
    in the subordinate clause                                                   in the main clause.

    The order of the clauses may be reversed without any consequence for the necessary tenses.  

    - Paul will catch the 10 o'clock train if he runs to the station.

    The action isn't REAL yet, but is possible and may be realised;

    The sentence expresses => POSSIBILITY = IF + simple present=> subject + will + verb base




    2) The unreal of the present (= second conditional):  = expression of a wish;  a supposition is expressed in the modal preterite (expressing the unreal mode in French and in English). The action is possible, but not realised yet; the expression is a wish. The possible realisation is expressed in the conditional ("second conditional"): (Subject + would + 
    verb base.)

    - He'd get his train if he ran to the station.
    - If Paul ran to the station, he wouldn't miss his train.
     (but he isn't running now... = UNREAL mode ...) He'll miss his train unless he runs fast...)

    If + 
    modal preterite     =>  Subject + second conditional

         in the subordinate                                 would + verb base 

                                                                      in the main clause

    The wish, which isn't realised yet, is still realisable. The order of the clauses in the sentence doesn't change the tenses that must be used. 

     - The UNREAL of the PRESENT= IF + 
    modal preterite => would + verb base




    3) The UNREAL of the past: expresses a « regret »,  after the moment of the action, (whether the action was realised, or not!  ...) 

    - If he had run to the station, he wouldn't have missed his train. (the action is in the past; he hasn't run; it's too late...=> he has missed his train )

     This is still the UNREAL mode, but the action is in the PAST. He hasn't run and has missed his train! Too bad for him! 

    - The UNREAL of the PAST = IF + past perfect => would have + 
    past participle 

    (Reminder!  past perfect = had + past participle;  past conditional =third conditional=  would + have + past participle.)




    There you are! You can see that it's not more difficult than the preceding lesson... The only important thing you have to do is remember the patterns of "tense agreements" and STICK to them, even if you happen to hear different tenses used in daily conversation   and in the media ! Please, for your own good, do not imitate!  


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    English exercise "If clauses: step 2" created by here4u with The test builder. [More lessons & exercises from here4u]
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    1. How shocking, Lucy! Your Mom very angry with you if she you use these swearwords.

    2. If you to do your exercise alone first, I you afterwards, in about a quarter of an hour.

    3. Patrick if he during the test.

    4. If Lucy up her room on time, she in the garden before dinner time.

    5. It wonderful if we good snow for our holiday in the mountains.

    6. They for so long if you on time, for once !


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