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Vocabulary: using suffixes
The best way to know and use words of vocabulary without learning them, is to form these new words thanks to particles:
if they're placed behind the words, they are SUFFIXES.
THE MAIN SUFFIXES:
1) In order to make a NOUN: the person who does the action= -er/ -ist/ -ster => writer, reader, jumper, nationalist, youngster
-let= diminutive (booklet= a small book)
2) In order to form an ABSTRACT NOUN: Noun or Adjective+ - DOM (kingdom)/- HOOD (childhood) / - TY (poverty)
- SHIP (friendship)/ - ACY (legitimacy)/ - NESS (kindness)/ - MENT (employment)/
- ATION (appropriation)/ - ISM (patriotism)
Children=> childhood A patriot=> patriotism
3) In order to form an ADJECTIVE:
- Noun +-y => adjective: which has a quality: sunny, windy, thirsty.
- Privative suffix : absence of, without= - less ; (careless, jobless)
- = -ful (Be careful! only one L which is doubled in order to make the adverb!); (careful=> carefully.)
- Suffix in -ing= active meaning (present participle ), passive meaning -ed= ( past participle);
- -ish = sort of... (blackish) / characteristic of (childish);
- -able = capable of (drinkable; lovable.)
Poor=> poverty Free=> freedom
4) In order to create a VERB: Adjective + -en = Verb ( short=> shorten/ whiten/ stiffen).
sad=> to sadden White=> to whiten
You may use several consecutive suffixes to form an abstract noun: Job (noun) => jobless (adjective) => joblessness (noun).
There you are! Ready for the test! You'll have to create new words using a "root" word.
This "root word" will be given, and the necessary suffix(es) will have to be added to complete the sentences. Go for it, using your logic and imagination!
English exercise "Vocabulary: using suffixes" created by here4u with The test builder. [More lessons & exercises from here4u]
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