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Vocabulary: social aids and insurances.
In test, we have seen that the financial resources of the citizens of a country could be extremely different. Out of concern for fairness and social inclusion, most states and countries have elaborated systems of Social Services (which are more or less generous) to make up for these inequalities and make sure every citizen may enjoy as decent a life as possible.
THE WELFARE STATE:
The Welfare State is a system that allows the government of a country to provide social services such as healthcare, unemployment benefit, etc. to people who need them, paid for by taxes.
|The Welfare State||The social services|
|A social worker||Social administration|
|Social security (GB)/ State aid (US)||To be on social security|
|To refund||An allowance for something|
|To be entitled to stg||Housing benefit|
social security (US)
|An old age pension||A retirement pension|
|Index-linked||To be retired|
An old age pensioner/ an OAP.
A retirement home
An old people's home
The system of different insurances is necessary to bring funds to the States and countries.
|A car/ fire/ life insurance||to insure stg against theft|
|To take out an insurance against||civil liability|
|An insurance policy||a premium|
|A policy holder||an all-risks policy|
|A comprehensive insurance||an insurance agent|
- You can get it on the NHS : (National Health Service). Paid by the NHS.
Taxes are, of course, an important part of the resources of the different countries and States.
|Income tax||Land tax|
|Wealth tax||To pay tax on stg|
|To be liable for tax||Tax evasion|
|To evade taxation||A tax form|
|A tax allowance/ rebate||A tax exemption|
|A tax haven||The tax collector|
A very common system for Income Taxes:
"pay-as-you-earn" (GB)/ "pay-as-you-go" (US): "A pay-as-you-go system" is one in which you pay for a service before you use it (the share you should give is taken away from your monthly wages).
=> to do one's tax return= to fill in a complementary form
The Tax Authorities/ The Inland Revenue (GB)/ The Internal Revenue (US).
|A tax on something||Inclusive/ exclusive tax|
|Duty free||The discount rate|
|The rates (GB)||= The council tax (1982)|
|Value added tax (GB)||= Consumption tax|
Taxes are, of course, very different by their nature and amount in the different countries. The allowances and aids provided to the needy are too.
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