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We use the Past perfect tense when we want to show that an action or event happened before another action or event in the past. It is not important which action or event comes in the first part of the sentence. Below, action A happened first and action or event B came in the second part of a sentence.
John had gone out (A) when I arrived in the office (B). In the first part of sentence we use past perfect tense and in the second part we use past simple tense.
It is not important which of the two actions or events come in the first clause. These two clauses in the sentence are the same. In other words, when an activity was completed in the past we use past perfect tense. We use it when we want to focus attention that an action or event was completed before another action or event occurred. The past perfect tense is not used in English as much as other tenses, but it is very useful if we use it properly.
Affirmative form: Subject + auxiliary verb (have – past form) + main verb (Past participle). e.g.,she had given.
Negative form: Subject + auxiliary verb (have –past form) + n't + main verb (past participle).e.g., she hadn't asked.
Interrogative form: Auxiliary verb (have- past form) + subject + main verb (past participle). e.g.,Had you arrived?
Interrogative negative: Auxiliary verb (have - past tense) + n't + subject + main verb (past participle).e.g., Hadn't you finished?
Past perfect With JUST: JUST is used with past perfect in a sentence to show an action or an event happened only a short time before now. e.g., The bus had just left when I arrived at the bus stop.
Important notice 1: In the case of the existence of only one action or event, we don't use the past perfect tense even if it happened a long time ago.
Past perfect and before: BEFORE can also be used in past perfect tense when an event or an action was not completed when a past simple action or event occurred. e.g., They left before I'd spoken to them sadly. The author died before he'd finished the series.
Adverbs Some adverbs are used in the past perfect tense. These adverbs are: already,still, just, ever or never.
Important notice 2: The short form of had is “ 'd”. We must pay attention because the short form of would is also ‘ 'd'. But after would the infinitive form of the verb is used.
Please use the correct form of the verbs.
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