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Limits of Time and Space
In different countries of Europe there are expressions which can have several values: "JUSQU'À" is one of them! JUSQU' À (in France), HASTA ( in Spain), FINO A( in Italy), ATÉ ( in Portugal) and BIS (in Germany) all express varied notions... the same ones: a DISTANCE, a TIME, or a MEASURE, a QUANTITY, most of the time a LIMIT. Consequently, we'll have to look at the context very carefully (even more than ever!) so as to be able to know what expression to use in English !
I) Expressing a limit to a DISTANCE : to, as far as...
➡️TO simply indicates the point of arrival, a point to reach; AS FAR AS insists on the nature of the distance (whether it is long or short).
- Mum drove me as far as the station, but she refused to take me to my friends' herself.
Please notice: the interrogative form : HOW FAR...
- How far will he have to go to find some petrol?
➡️ DOWN TO: Please, translate this text down to line 20.
II) Expressing a TIME: until, till, as long as, up to...
Till and Until indicate how long something will happen or when it will start or end.Till is the older of the two words, by several hundred years.
Until is usually perceived as slightly more formal than till—possibly because of the mistaken belief that till is just a shortened form of until. But the difference isn't huge. Till can be used in formal writing without being wrong.
Until is always correct. You can use it in casual writing or formal writing and no one will ever think it's wrong. If you always stick to until, you can be sure you're not making a mistake.
- I'll be abroad the whole following school year, but I'll only stay in Italy till the New Year.
- up to the present time: so far, up to now, until now...
- I haven't met your parents so far, but I hope I will soon.
III) QUANTITIES, MEASURES : up to, as much as /as many as/ as little as/ as few as...
➡️ UP TO indicates the point to reach, the maximum figure. AS MANY AS + countables // AS MUCH AS + uncountables adds the idea that the quantity is judged important. // AS LITTLE AS (+uncountables) // AS FEW AS (+countables) when the quantity is little.
- Little Tom can count up to one hundred and is very proud of it !
- This library has as many as three thousand books, and you can borrow 5 a month.
There you are! You're now ready to do the test and pass it with flying colours... I'm sure you'll succeed!
Thanks for your work!
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