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An enormous chapter of elementary grammar which is very useful to beginners... (and others!)
WH- questions are often badly built, and yet they are fundamental!
I) WHO and WHAT acting like a direct object complement:
|Pattern: WH + auxiliary + subject + verb?|
- Who have you invited?
- What did you buy?
Be careful! In the interrogative form, when dealing with phrasal verbs:
place the particle after the verb, like in the affirmative form.
- Who are you waiting for?
- Who did you play tennis with?
II) WHEN?/ WHAT TIME?/ SINCE WHEN?/ HOW?/ WHY?/ WHERE?/ WHAT...FOR?:
they are illustrating "circumstantial complements" and follow the pattern:
|WH- + auxiliary + subject + verb?|
➡️ Time: when...?
- When did he arrive?
➡️ Time of the day: What time?
- What time does your plane leave?
➡️ Starting point of an action: Since when... ?
- Since when has he been here?
➡️ Way of doing, manner: How?
- How did you come here: by car or by train?
➡️ Cause: Why?
- Why did you arrive so late?
➡️ Place: where?
- Where will you sleep?
➡️ Aim, purpose: What... for?
- What are you calling her for?
III) HOW + ADJECTIVE (or adverb): expressing a degree.
|Pattern: HOW + adjective/ adverb+ auxiliary + subject + verb?|
➡️ Duration, length of time: How long?
- How long will you stay here?
➡️ Duration: How long ago...?
- How long ago was it sold?
➡️ Distance: How far...?
- How far do you drive to work everyday?
➡️ Frequency: How often?
- How often does he wash his hair?
➡️ Age: How old?
- How old was he when he arrived in England?
➡️ Dimension, size: How big...?
- How big is your house?
➡️ HOW MUCH (+ uncountable)
IV) HOW MUCH/ HOW MANY: express quantity.
- How much chocolate did you eat this morning?
➡️ HOW MANY + countable in the plural
- How many books did he bring?
V) WHOSE: genitive expresses a possession. (NO article in front of the possession!)
|Pattern: WHOSE + NOUN+ auxiliary + SUBJECT + VERB?|
- Whose bike did you borrow?
➡️ among a great number of elements: WHAT?➡️ amond a reduced number of elements: WHICH?
VI) WHICH and WHAT: choosing...
Quite easy, isn't it? Go for the test, now! Good luck!
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