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Past Perfect Simple or V-ing
Past Perfect simple
- for actions that happened before a past event :
The performance had already started by the time we arrived.
- to refer to activities that were completed before a point of time :
By 2010, Tom had lived in that village for six years.
- to express an action taking place before a certain time in the past :
( to put emphasis only on the fact, not the duration )
By the time I arrive at your house, I had already visited your grandparents.
- when explaining or giving a reason for something in the past :
I had eaten three sandwiches so I wasn't hungry.
- conditional sentences, TYPE III :
If I had known you were in need, I would have helped you.
- when expressing dissatisfaction with the Past :
( ' I wish ' , ' If only ' )
I wish I had eaten more soup. I am hungry now.
If only I had taken more soup. I am hungry now.
- when formulating the passive voice we use - had + been + past participle :
The cake had been made.
Past Perfect V-ing
- this is like the Past Perfect but it expresses a longer activity in the past before another activity in the past :
I was absolutely exhausted. I had been mending the roof.
- to show something that had been happening before something else :
I had been playing football for 2 hours when my friend arrived.
- to express something that had been happening over a period of time in the past until another point :
He fainted because he had been riding a bike for five hours.
- to express something that had been happening in preparation for something else :
I had been studying for five days and I was ready for the exam.
- we use this tense in conditional Type III to show imagined conditions :
If I hadn't missed the bus, I wouldn't have been late for the exam.
- to refer to an activity that was in process :
By the time they got to the pub, we had already been waiting for 2 hours.
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