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    Used to/marginal verb

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    Used to/marginal verb
    Message from mohammad51 posted on 28-11-2017 at 18:33:49 (D | E | F)
    Hello,
    IsUsed to a marginal verb ?
    I know it is classified among semi-modal verbs like: dare , need, ought to, but those can be used to introduce questions.
    Examples: auxiliaries
    Need we reserve seats on the train?
    Need we talk to her about this?
    Dare anyone go there?
    Do we need to consult a doctor? question but this time need = ordinary verb
    Do you dare to swim across the river? also question dare = ordinary verb

    statement ( ordinary verbs) negative or positive
    You donít need to pay for that drink.
    She is a woman who dares to say what she thinks.
    She didnít dare to open the door.

    He dare not live alone in that house. here dare is auxiliary

    So my question how ( used to) is considered a semi-modal and lacks to the grammar characteristics of those?
    Is it true? How it is true! Can 'used to' initiate an interrogative sentence? Of course not, so why this classification?

    -------------------
    Edited by lucile83 on 28-11-2017 19:33


    Re: Used to/marginal verb from gerondif, posted on 28-11-2017 at 19:31:05 (D | E)
    Hello,
    for me "used to" is not a modal or semi-modal verb. You could call it a defective verb, a verb which cannot be used in all tenses.

    You can only find "used to" in the preterite, that is true, BUT this verb lives and works like any other ordinary lexical verb:
    He accepted to live in the country. / He used to live in the country.
    Did he accept to live in the country ? / Did he use to live in the country ?
    Yes, he did / Yes, he did.
    Yes, he accepted to. / Yes, he used to.
    No, he didn't. / No, he didn't.
    No, he didn't accept to. / No, he didn't use to.
    No, he didn't accept to live in the country. / No, he didn't use to live in the country.
    I could have used : he refused to, he wanted to, he brought himself to, ...

    Now, his neighbour verb, would, expressing a past voluntary habit or something of the past that we think of with regret or nostalgia, is a modal verb.



    Re: Used to/marginal verb from mohammad51, posted on 30-11-2017 at 12:05:47 (D | E)
    Hello,
    Thank you gerondif to come and answer.
    I agree with you to say " I don't consider used to among modal verbs." So I am...
    But I see that used to can be used in all tenses ( not sentences like dare or need) I mean tenses in general.

    Here are examples: statements and questions
    I am used to hard work. present aspect
    I am used to working hard. progressive aspect
    He is not used to New York. present aspect
    He isn't used to living in New York. progressive aspect
    Are you used to fast food? question ( general time )
    Are you used to eating quickly? = = = =

    When we lived in Bangkok, we were used to hot weather. past aspect
    I have been used to snakes for a long time. perfect aspect
    You will soon be used to living alone. future aspect



    Re: Used to/marginal verb from gerondif, posted on 30-11-2017 at 16:32:20 (D | E)
    Hello,
    Once again,
    You make a confusion between:
    1) to be used to doing something, which can be used at any tense: used is adjectival, to is a preposition followed by a gerund:
    I am used to typing with two fingers. I am not used to typing with my thumbs on those wretched smartphones.
    He was used to swimming in cold water.
    in a few days, you will be used to this new car.

    2)the VERB used to , which exists only in the preterite and describes something that you did in the past and don't do any more, or still do.
    I used to go to school by bike when I was a child.
    I didn't use to smoke when I was a child.
    He always used to agree with me when he was younger but nowadays, he often disagrees with me.
    So yes, it is all right (not already)to use always if the meaning requires it.

    In your topic, we were speaking about the verb : He used to live in New-York when he was young, which is totally different from: When he lived in New-York, he didn't have a car, he was used to getting around in taxis.
    the past participle used as an adjective, used, can be used in all tenses, like accustomed to, obliged to, invited to, willing to,
    I am used to cycling to work.
    I am accustomed to cycling to work.
    I am happy to cycle to work.
    I am willing to cycle to work.
    I am invited to cycle to work by that money incentive brought forward by the company: a ten-per-cent pay-increase if I do.
    I am interested in cycling to work.
    I am fond of cycling to work.
    I am keen on cycling to work.
    I am crazy about cycling to work.
    I am mad about cycling to work.
    All these will accept most tenses.

    When used to is adjectival and used in all tenses, you will have the auxiliary verb be or get in front of it.
    In a few days, I will be used to driving this new car.
    I will get used to driving this new car in no time.

    But the VERB used will be on its own in the preterite, or use did.
    Where did he use to live ? He used to live in New-York (verb), which explains why he is used to living in a big city.(adjectival)






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