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    The Great Famine of 1845 to 1849 left over 1 million dead
    with a further 1 million emigrating over the following 10
    years. One of the effects of the disaster was to
    demonstrate to ordinary Irish people that the English
    Government had failed them in their time of need and
    that they must seize control of their own destiny.

    Out of the Famine grew several revolutionary movements
    which culminated in the 1916 Easter Rising. In the
    second half of the nineteenth century the main concern
    of the Irish people was their land and the fact that
    they had no control whatsoever over it ownership.

    Charles Stewart Parnell was the son of a Protestant
    landowner who organised the rural masses into agitation
    against the ruling Landlord class to seek the 3 Fs:
    Fixity of Tenure, Freedom to Sell and Fair Rent.

    Violence flared in the countryside but Parnell preferred
    to use parliamentary means to achieve his objectives and
    the result was a series of Land Acts which greatly improved
    the conditions under which the Irish agricultural class

    Parnell's main ambition was Home Rule for Ireland (local
    Government) and he led the Irish Party, deposing Isaac
    Butt in the process to achieve this aim. He and colleagues
    such as Joseph Biggar made a science out of 'fillibustering'
    and delayed the English parliament by introducing amendments
    to every clause of every Bill and then discussing each aspect
    at length. His popularity in Ireland soared to great heights.

    Trouble loomed for Parnell however, in his private life. He
    had secretly courted a married woman, Kathleen O'Shea, the
    husband of whom filed for divorce, naming Parnell as the
    co-repsondent. He tried to ignore the scandal and continued
    his public life. Public pressure in Ireland and from
    Gladstone in England eventually brought his downfall and he
    died shortly afterwards, in 1891. The Home Rule Bill that
    he had forced Gladstone into introducing was passed in the
    House of Commons, but defeated in the House of Lords.

    In his last speech in Kilkenny in 1891 he said: 'I don’t
    pretend that I had not moments of trial and of temptation,
    but I do claim that never in thought, word, or deed, have
    I been false to the trust which Irishmen have confided in me'.

    But perhaps he will be most remembered for the quotation
    that can be found on his statue at the junction of O'Connell
    Street and Parnell Street in Dublin City Centre:

    'No man shall have the right to fix the boundary to the
    march of a Nation'.

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