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Means, results : a synthesis...
As I had promised, here is the synthesis of the different tests and lessons preparing the difficult way towards the expression of "Means and Results". They're quite difficult and have a very bad reputation among students...That's why I had decided to make them gradual...
As promised too, you'll then have to face a test in which the different varied patterns will be mixed. You'll have to go slow and be careful!
1. THE DIFFERENT WAYS TO CHANGE PLACES:
The verb indicates the means of doing the action, the way of moving or a noise going along with this movement, whereas the element expressing the result is expressed by a particle, a preposition + a noun:
- The Wetbacks were many to swim across the Rio Grande into the USA.
- The door banged shut because of the draught.
* This precise construction indicates movement and very often gives the possibility to know if the subject is getting nearer or getting away.
- Quick ! Run upstairs... she needs you !
- Come in ... I've been waiting for you for long!
* When it is followed by « one's way », the verb indicates a difficulty to move, an effort to make in order to succeed.
- The policeman shouldered his way through the crowd to catch the thief.
2. PERSUASION - DISSUASION :
SUBJECT + VERB + INTO/OUT OF + V+ ing (or NOUN)
Once again, the way of doing the action is expressed by the verb which may be extremely varied, and the result is introduced by INTO (for persuasion) or OUT OF (for dissuasion).
- Mat deceived his parents into signing the cheque he needed.
- We laughed him out of his plans. They were too unrealistic.
3. MEANS - RESULTS :
Contrary to the constructions of the sentences in French and other European languages, the means is always mentioned before the result. The chronological order must be respected.
- At the football match, he shouted (means) himself hoarse (result).
- The young mom sang (means) the baby to sleep (result).
Well well! You know everything, now ... Go for the test!
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