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Generally speaking, going from the singular form to the plural one is quite simple: simply add an -s to the singular.
- a table => tables ; an orange => oranges.
There are MANY, VARIED IRREGULAR FORMS OF the PLURAL:
Some special endings:
A) Words ending with "Y"
* If the Y is preceded by a vowel ( a, e, i, o, u, y.) the plural is in - s.
- a day=> days; toy => toys.
* If the Y is preceded by a consonant: the plural form is in - ies.
- a spy=> 2 spies( espions) ; a country= 2 countries.
B) Words ending with -s, -sh, -ch, and -x and some words ending with -o. (plural forms in - es.)
- a match => 2 matches; a flash=> 2 flashes; a mass=> 2 masses; a tomato=> 2 tomatoes.
C) Words ending with -f which have their plurals in - ves:
|a calf||->calves||a self||->selves|
|a knife||->knives||a loaf||->loaves|
|a leaf||->leaves||a wife||->wives|
Some other words ending with -f have a regular plural:
- Roof => roofs; cliffs ; chiefs.
D) The words "deer", "fish" and "sheep" have no s in the plural.
- one sheep => two sheep => a herd of sheep
E) A few words have a different form of plural, or don't change from singular to plural:
|a man||2 men||a woman||2 women|
|a foot||2 feet||a tooth||2 teeth|
|a child||2 children||a mouse||2 mice|
|a crisis||2 crises||a criterion||2 criteria|
|a species||2 species||a means||2 means|
Some of these words have Greek or Latin origin:
- the endings in - on have their plurals in - a: criterion, phenomenon => criteria, phenomena.
- the endings in - is have their plurals in - es: a basis, thesis, hypothesis, analysis => bases, theses, hypotheses, analyses.
Well well! That's it! You should be ready to face the test! it's a bit long, but quite easy! Go for it!
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