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    Learn English > English lessons and exercises > English test #117078: Vocabulary: words starting with self-
    > Other English exercises on the same topics: How words are built | Find the word [Change theme]
    > Similar tests: - Finals in -y and -ie - Vocabulary: making verbs - Means, results : a synthesis... - Forming adjectives from nouns - Prefixes (1) - Words and suffixes - Prefixes 2 - Suffixes
    > Double-click on words you don't understand

    Vocabulary: words starting with self-

    SELF, meaning "on one's own", has several "grammatical natures": it can be an adjective, a noun, or a pronoun.  



    SELF is also "an affix", which means it can be a PREFIX (placed before a word) or a  SUFFIX (placed behind it). Here, we'll concentrate on SELF as a prefix, which means it's going to be used to form different words - verbs, adjectives or nouns- being placed before them. 

    Among the words formed in such a way, some are said to be "almost transparent":  to self-correct; to self-educate; a self-made man; a self-hating person; self-defence; self-government, etc.


    I) The NOUNS introduced by SELF- xxxxx : refer to actions that one does by oneself or to oneself.  



     Self-assurance = self-confidence/ self-reliance
     Self-criticism = self-judgement/ self-censuring
     Self-defence = self-protecting
     Self-determination   = self-government
     Self-employment = earning one's living directly
     Self-esteem = self-confidence
     Self-examination = self-study/ introspection
     Self-government              = self-control/ self-determination             
     Self-image = self-concept/ ego
     Self-justification = self-excuses/ self-explanation
     Self-love = narcisism/ self-appreciation
     Self-narrative = auto-biography/ self-reported
     Self-obsession = self-conscious
     Self-punishment = self-mortification



           Develop self-confidence ...                                 Self-destruction...                                      Self-defence (GB)/ self-defense (US)


    Although verbs are, as we can see, at the origin of the words starting with self- , they're also transformed in order to build adjectives. Understanding and building them prove to have the same difficulties as for the verbal adjectives in -ed or in -ing  that we have already seen: test

    II) The ADJECTIVES starting with self: also indicate that the action has been or will be done without anyone's assistance, "alone". 

    Let's remember that the adjectives ending with -ing have an active meaning (the subject is acting) whereas those ending with -ed have a passive meaning  (the action is endured by the subject ).

     Self-sealing  = self-sticking/ self-closing 
     Self-denying  = self-sacrificing/ moderate/ unselfish 
     Self-deprecating  = self-deriding/ mocking/ self-sacrificing 
     Self-defeating  = backfiring/ counterproductive
     Self-testing = self-assessing/ checking/ verifying
     Self-supporting  = providing/ subsidizing/ self-financing
     Self-catering = Making meals and providing services for a group          
     Self-aggrandizing                  = Magnifying/ Exaggerating
     Self-driving = Renting a car and driving it yourself
     Self-governing = Self-determining/ self-controlling

          A self-catering home                                    ... self-punishing...                                            Self-aggrandizing

     Self-inflicted = self-imposed
     Self-addressed  = Stamped addressed envelope/ SAE
     Self-employed   = independent/ unaffiliated
     Self-taught  = autodidactical/ self-educated
     Self-appointed                   = self-assumed authority/ self-declared                    
     Self-assured = confident/ overconfident 
     Self-conceited = boastful/ bombastic/ egotistic
     Self-made = self-reliant/ audacious/ confident 
     Self-motivated = assured/ resolute
     Self-obsessed = egocentric/ egomaniac/ egoistical/ narcissist  
     Self-opinionated   = stubborn/ unbending/ headstrong
     Self-composed = composed/ calm/self-made


    I know there are many compound words, but you don't have to learn them all... Instead, you should look at the way they're built, make sure you understand these constructions and then try to make them up as much as you want. You'll have a lot of time to do it.

    To face the test, you'll simply have to make a choice among the given words. You won't have any problem. 

    Good luck to all of you  ... and of course,  THE FORCE IS WITH YOU.   


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    1. 'When we visited Greece, we flew to Athens and round the sites in the Peloponnese. What wonderful memories...'

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